Sectors in cultural and creative industries

One of the initial steps of the project was to undertake a mapping of clusters and similar economic realities in cultural and creative industries in the Southern Mediterranean. Conducted in 2014 by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), this mapping identified all sectors of cultural and creative industries and grouped them into four main categories:

  • Cultural media:
    • Audio-visual — including film, photography, radio, television producers and broadcasting companies
    • Music — including music producers and live-music promoters
    • Publishing — including publishers, literary agents, printing houses, archives and libraries
    • Videogames
  • Live culture:
    • Performing arts — including theatre, dance and related companies
    • Visual arts — including sculpture, painting and art galleries
    • Heritage management — including organizations managing museums, archaeological and historical places as well as companies supplying specialized products and services to these organizations
  • Design-based industries:
    • Fashion — including clothes, shoes and jewellery
    • Habitat industries — including furniture, lighting, home textile and decoration
  • Professional creative services:
    • Communication and advertising — including communication agencies, graphic design companies and professional music and multimedia producers
    • Interior design, architecture and construction


The mapping identified 141 clusters and potential clusters: 13 in Algeria, 46 in Egypt, 11 in Jordan, 15 in Lebanon, 22 in Morocco, 9 in Palestine and 25 in Tunisia. Identified clusters are organized by category and sector below:

  • Cultural media: 10 potential clusters in five countries   
    • Publishing clusters in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia
    • Audio-visual and multimedia clusters in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia
    • A music cluster in Egypt      
  • Live culture: three potential clusters in three countries
    • Visual arts clusters in Lebanon, Palestine and Tunisia
  • Design-based industries: 124 potential clusters in seven countries
    • Habitat industries clusters in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine and Tunisia
    • Textiles and clothing clusters in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine and Tunisia
    • Accessories clusters in Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia     
  • Professional creative services clusters: four potential professional creative services clusters in three countries
    • Advertising clusters were found in Algeria, Egypt and Jordan
    • Architecture clusters were found in Jordan


Results showed that most clusters in cultural and creative industries in the region work in design-based industries. Businesses operating in the other sectors are geographically spread out and with the exception of a few businesses are not yet constellated or concentrated. Nonetheless, some important clusters in cultural and creative industries operating in the other three categories were identified.

Furthermore, the mapping of clusters identified a number of other economic realities, which cannot be categorized as clusters as they do not fulfil the necessary criteria, but nonetheless have great potential for growth and development.